There are many arguments proving that oxidative stress is one of the indicators of epilepsy. It is also known that EPR imaging can be useful in monitoring oxidative stress. Thus, the question arises: is it possible to examine the kindling model of epilepsy by using a non-invasive method for obtaining redox data in order to reveal the sensitive oxidative damage in regions of the brain?
This question has been taken into consideration by a research group led by Emoto M.C. The publication “Brain redox imagining in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model of epilepsy by using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance and a nitroxide imaging probe” shows their approach to this matter.
A mouse kindling model of epilepsy (induced using PTZ) have been used in the experiment and it have been compared with the control group. With the help of EPR and the redox-sensitive imaging probe MCP, Emoto and colleagues could thoroughly observe changes of redox state in the brain of mice. They have obtained a three dimensional redox map that showed the difference between the brains of a PTZ-induced mouse and the control animals. The authors of this research concluded that during the epileptic seizures the hippocampus is highly vulnerable to damage caused by oxidative stress.
Studies also showed that no matter how many biomarkers of oxidative stress have been found, none of them is useful for examining and monitoring the effects of ROS in an animal model for a long period of time. EPR imaging with a nitroxide spin probe face up to these expectations allowing for visualizing and monitoring in vivo ROS under oxidative stress in real time.
This non-invasive method can be seen to be useful, not only with epileptic seizure models but also in other neurologic disorders such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.
Emoto MC, Yamata M, Sato-Akaba H, Yamada K, Fujii HG; Brain redox imaging in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model of epilepsy by using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance and a nitroxide imaging probe; Neurosci Lett. 2015 Nov 3;608:40-4; DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.10.008.